Affective_Taxonomy.gifGT Weekly Teaching Strategy: Affective Taxonomy

KRATHWOHL’S AFFECTIVE TAXONOMY

Krathwohl’s Affective Taxonomy (1964) was developed as a partnership with Bloom’s Cognitive Taxonomy through collaboration between Krathwohl, Bloom, and Masia. Both taxonomies were developed to facilitate communication between psychologists and educators in such areas as test construction, research, and curriculum development. The Affective and Cognitive Taxonomies are hierarchical, each higher level depending on all the levels below it.

Levels of Affective Taxonomy (in ascending order)

1. Receiving or Attending: The learner is aware that things exist, is willing to receive information, and can selectively attend to stimuli.

2. Responding: Students can become so involved in or committed to a subject or activity that they will seek it out and gain satisfaction from participation.

3. Valuing: The learner decides that a person, thing, phenomenon, or idea has worth or importance. The learner can therefore demonstrate a preference for a value in which they want to be identified with the value and show intent to seek out that value. As a learner becomes committed to the value, he may act according to the value, try to convince others, and deepen his own involvement with the value.

4. Organization: The learner internalizes values and organizes them into a value system. The learner must synthesize attitudes, beliefs, and values into value complexes that can be situation dependent.

5. Characterization by a Value or Value Complex: At the final level of the Affective Taxonomy, values have already been internalized and organized into a hierarchy and have controlled behavior long enough that individuals behave in ways consistent with the value complex. This type of value internalization results in an individual’s world-view or pervasive philosophy of life.

Teacher Suggestions for Using the Affective Taxonomy
Attention:
  • Present learning activities or information to capture the attention of the learner.
  • Check to see if the learner is aware of the stimuli
  • Plan sequential lessons that will lead learners from awareness to willingness to receive and on to selective attending

Example: Present information to students about habitats in the form of books, visuals, computer resources, video, guest speakers, etc. Allow students to pay attention to the information through reading, watching, and listening. Encourage students to choose information to examine.
Responding:
  • Check to see if students have attended to relevant stimuli
  • Plan activities designed to stimulate interest
  • Ask questions regarding student feelings toward activities, ideas, people, and objects.

Example: Ask students questions about information gained concerning habitats. Allow students to participate in activities in which they can explore the importance of habitats to humans, wildlife, and the environment. Ask students how they feel about habitats, the activities they have worked on, and the importance of habitats in their environment.

Valuing:
  • Check student’s response to a phenomenon, idea, or other people.
  • Organize activities in which students can make value choices
  • Provide situations in which students can exhibit and discuss their value choices
  • Assist students in clarification of their values with provocative questions

Example: Ask students to rate their feelings about the importance of habitats. Ask questions to clarify why they feel the way they do. Help students determine what they value about habitats and their importance in the world. Make sure students can explain why.

Organization:
· Check what values students hold
· Arrange situations in which students must choose between competing values they already hold
· Assist students in the examination of relationships between their values by asking questions
· Help students to develop equilibrium in their value systems

Example: Help students compare the values they hold regarding habitats with values others hold. They could compare conflicting values as well as complimentary values. Encourage students to identify any conflicts among their own values and organize such values into groupings or systems that are dependent on self-determined criteria.

Characterization by a value or value complex:
· Check to see that students have organized and examined their values
· Arrange situations in which students can demonstrate internalized values
· Assist students in the identification of the values they have internalized

Example: Give students the opportunity to demonstrate their internalized value system regarding habitats by having them create an ideal habitat in an ideal environment. Make sure they can articulate the underlying values that determine their ideal situation and the reasons why they hold those beliefs.